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Review article
Medwave 2016 Ene;16(1):e6372 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2016.01.6372
Vegetables as new psychoactive drugs: a narrative review
Beatriz Rodríguez Salgado, Jorge Gómez-Arnau Ramírez, Daniel Sánchez Mateos, Helen Dolengevich Segal
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Key Words: herbal highs, psychoactive drugs, salvia, ayahuasca

Abstract

There is growing interest in plants with psychoactive effects among consumers with different levels of experience. This has generated a need for updated knowledge among medical professionals and other health workers. These plants, which may be used in shamanic healing ceremonies or rituals or just for traditional purposes, have emerged in the Western world as new psychoactive drugs; largely thanks to the ease of purchase, sale, cultivation and exchange of information that the Internet offers. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the most important psychoactive plants, either by their mention in Internet forums or harm-reduction portals or by their allusion in scientific texts.


 

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Licencia Creative Commons Esta obra de Medwave está bajo una licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 3.0 Unported. Esta licencia permite el uso, distribución y reproducción del artículo en cualquier medio, siempre y cuando se otorgue el crédito correspondiente al autor del artículo y al medio en que se publica, en este caso, Medwave.

 

Existe un interés creciente en los vegetales con efectos psicoactivos por parte de consumidores, con diferentes niveles de experiencia. Esto ha generado una necesidad de actualización de conocimientos del lado de los profesionales médicos y de otros responsables de la salud pública. Se trata, por lo general, de plantas de uso en ceremonias chamánicas con intención curativa, en rituales o simplemente de uso tradicional que han dado el salto al mundo occidental como nuevas drogas psicoactivas, en gran medida gracias a la facilidad de compra, venta, cultivo e intercambio de información que ofrece Internet. Recopilamos en este texto los vegetales con propiedades psicoactivas más relevantes, tanto por su frecuente mención en foros de usuarios o en portales destinados a la reducción de daños en el consumo de drogas, como por su aparición en textos científicos.

Authors: Beatriz Rodríguez Salgado[1], Jorge Gómez-Arnau Ramírez[2], Daniel Sánchez Mateos[3], Helen Dolengevich Segal[2]

Affiliation:
[1] Centro de Salud Mental de San Blas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España
[2] Hospital Universitario del Henares, Madrid, España
[3] Hospital La Fe, Valencia, España

E-mail: beatriz.rs@gmail.com

Author address:
[1] Castillo de Ucles 35
San Blas-Canillejas
Madrid
España

Citation: Rodríguez Salgado B, Gómez-Arnau Ramírez J, Sánchez Mateos D, Dolengevich Segal H. Vegetables as new psychoactive drugs: a narrative review. Medwave 2016 Ene;16(1):e6372 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2016.01.6372

Submission date: 1/11/2015

Acceptance date: 2/1/2016

Publication date: 21/1/2016

Origin: not requested

Type of review: reviewed by two external peer reviewers, double-blind

PubMed record

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Schultes RE, Hofmann A. Plantas de los Dioses. México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2000.

Dolengevich-Segal H, Rodríguez Salgado B, Gómez-Arnau Ramírez J, Sánchez-Mateos D. New Psychoactive Drugs. Adicciones. 2015 Sep 15;27(3):231-232. | PubMed |

Ujváry I. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2014; 50(1):12-27. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Dolengevich Segal H, Gómez-Arnau Ramírez J, Rodríguez Salgado B, Sánchez-Mateos D (editores). Nuevas Drogas Psicoactivas. España: Entheos; 2015.

Nelson ME, Bryant SM, Aks SE. Emerging drugs of abuse. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;32(1):1-28. | CrossRef | PubMed |

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The Challenge of New Psychoactive Substances. 2013, unodc.org [on line]. | Link |

Kikura-Hanajiri R, Uchiyama N, Goda Y. Survey of current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2011 May; 13(3):109-15. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Burns L, Roxburgh A, Matthews A, Bruno R, Lenton S, Van Buskirk J. The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia. Drug Test Anal. 2014 Jul-Aug; 6(7-8):846-9. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Riba J, Valle M, Urbano G, Yritia M, Morte A, Barbanoj MJ. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003; 306(1):73-83. | PubMed |

Ott J. Pharmacotheon. España: Los Libros de la Liebre de Marzo; 2000.

Majić T, Schmidt TT, Gallinat J. Peak experiences and the afterglow phenomenon: when and how do therapeutic effects of hallucinogens depend on psychedelic experiences? J Psychopharmacol. 2015; 29(3):241-53. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Drugs-Forum 2003-2015, drugs-forum.com [on line]. | Link |

Araújo AM, Carvalho F, Bastos Mde L, Guedes de Pinho P, Carvalho M. The hallucinogenic world of tryptamines: an updated review. Arch Toxicol. 2015; 89(8):1151-73. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Barbanoj MJ, Riba J, Clos S, Giménez S, Grasa E, Romero S. Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Feb;196(2):315-26. | PubMed |

Winkelman M. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2014;7(2):101-16. | PubMed |

Schmidt MM, Sharma A, Schifano F, Feinmann C. "Legal highs" on the net-Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information. Forensic Sci Int. 2011 Mar 20; 206(1-3):92-7. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Font Quer P. Antófitos, Papaveráceas. En: Plantas Medicinales. El Dioscórides renovado, España: Editorial Península; 2005:242-4.

Mességué M. Amapola. En: Mi herbario de salud. España: Plaza & Janes;1975: 64-6.

Günaydın YK, Dündar ZD, Çekmen B, Akıllı NB, Köylü R, Cander B. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy): Five Case Reports. Case Rep Med. 2015;2015:321360. | CrossRef | PubMed |

El País, 14/06/1995, Martínez A. Un hombre muere tras beber una tisana de amapolas. El País. 14/06/1995; Archivo [on line]. | Link |

Gonullu H, Karadas S, Dulger AC, Ebinc S. Hepatotoxicity associated with the ingestion of Papaver Rhoease. J Pak Med Assoc. 2014;64(10):1189-90. | PubMed |

Azerty. "Concentrated Decoction: An Experience with Poppies - California (ID 63290)". Erowid.org. Jan 21, 2010. erowid.org [on line]. | Link |

TEK. “Guide To Making (a Sort Of) Laudanum, (A step by step pictorial)”. Drugs-forum.org. April 4, 2008 [on line]. | Link |

Kalav YN, Sariyar G. Alkaloids from Turkish Papaver rhoeas. Planta Med. 1989;55(5):488. | PubMed |

Escohotado A. Sección primera. La Era Pagana. 4. La Ebriedad Sagrada. III. La América Precolombina. 2. La civilización andina. b. Otros estimulantes americanos. En: Historia General de las Drogas. España, Espasa Calpe; 1998.

The Ephedra site. Clinical Toxicology Review, Vol. 18, No. 10 July 1996. EPHEDRA ('MA HUANG') [on line]. | Link |

JIFE (Junta Internacional de Fiscalización de Estupefacientes). Decimocuarta edición, enero de 2015. Lista Roja. Lista de precursores y sustancias químicas utilizados frecuentemente en la fabricación ilícita de estupefacientes y sustancias sicotrópicas sometidos a fiscalización internacional. [on line]. | Link |

Avois L, Robinson N, Saudan C, Baume N, Mangin P, Saugy M. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40 Suppl 1:i16-20. | PubMed |

Agencia Mundial Antidopaje, 20 de septiembre de 2014. El Código Mundial Antidopaje. La lista de prohibiciones 2015. Estándar internacional [on line]. | Link |

Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Maglione M, Mojica WA, Suttorp MJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003 Mar 26;289(12):1537-45. | PubMed |

Zell-Kanter M, Quigley MA, Leikin JB. Reduction in ephedra poisonings after FDA ban. N Engl J Med. 2015 May 28;372(22):2172-4. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Smith MT, Crouch NR, Gericke N, Hirst M. Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium N.E.Br. and other Mesembryanthemaceae: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;50(3):119-30. | PubMed |

Harvey AL, Young LC, Viljoen AM, Gericke NP. Pharmacological actions of the South African medicinal and functional food plant Sceletium tortuosum and its principal alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1124-9. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Terburg D, Syal S, Rosenberger LA, Heany S, Phillips N, Gericke N, Stein DJ, van Honk J. Acute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38(13):2708-16. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Al-Mugahed L. Khat chewing in Yemen: turning over a new leaf. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(10):741-2. | PubMed |

Gebissa E. Khat in the Horn of Africa: historical perspectives and current trends. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Dec 1;132(3):607-14. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Wabe NT. Chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of khat (catha edulis forsk): a review. Addict Health. 2011;3(3-4):137-49. | PubMed |

Griffiths P, Lopez D, Sedefov R, Gallegos A, Hughes B, Noor A, et al. Khat use and monitoring drug use in Europe: the current situation and issues for the future. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Dec 1;132(3):578-83. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Kalix P. Khat: a plant with amphetamine effects. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1988;5(3):163-9. | PubMed |

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