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Medwave 2017 Ago;17(7):e7015 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2017.07.7015
Ciberacoso en escolares del Perú y factores asociados: análisis de una encuesta nacional
Cyberbullying in Peruvian schoolchildren and associated factors: analysis of a national survey
Juan C. Ruiz-Maza, Jazmin M. Sanchez-Salvatierra, Carlos M. Moreno-Arteaga
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Cyberbullying is the individual or collective aggression towards a victim using electronic means and it is currently a serious problem due to the expansion of social networks [1],[2],[3]. Approximately between 20% and 40% of children and adolescents in developed countries have ever suffered from cyberbullying [1], which can lead to serious consequences on mental health and academic performance of those affected.

In Peru the incipient information available on cyberbullying shows only prevalences at the regional level (mainly in the capital) [4],[5]. Considering this situation, it is sought to establish the national prevalence of cyberbullying, and its associated factors, in Peruvian schoolchildren from 9 to 11 years old thanks to the analysis of data from the National Survey of Social Relations (ENARES).

ENARES collects information on risk situations and social relations from 2013 on a biennial basis. During 2015, it surveyed a representative sample of 1,602 children aged 9 to 11 years across the country. Its database is available to every researcher at http://iinei.inei.gob.pe/microdatos/ .

For this study, schoolchildren who reported having received violent messages in virtual form or having been embarrassed by photos or videos on the Internet or Facebook were considered victims of cyberbullying. A complex sample analysis was performed using Stata v14, with crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR (aOR) with their 95% confidence intervals calculated using a logistic regression model.

Of the total number of students, 1,599 responded adequately to the questionnaire. The prevalence of cyberbullying during 2015 was 3.3% (95% CI: 2.5-4.4). The multivariate analysis showed that being a woman (aOR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.01-3.44) having suffered psychological violence (aOR 2.51, 95% CI: 1.10-5.73) or physical violence (aOR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.36-6.21) at home, and a negative school climate (aOR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.15-4.33) were factors associated with a higher prevalence of cyberbullying (Table 1).

Table 1. Factors associated with the prevalence of Cyberbullying in Peruvian schoolchildren aged 9 to 11 years, 2015.

The national prevalence of cyberbullying in Peru is lower than previously reported, possibly due to the variability of the population, the instruments used, as well as the limited access to electronic media throughout the territory when compared to the capital [4],[5], or with other latitudes [1].

An association of cyberbullying with female sex and the school and intrafamily environment was also found. The first relationship remains controversial at world level and the second shows that the quality of the relationships in school and in the intrafamily environment may influence the presence of cyberbullying [6], even from such early ages as these results show. In this sense, the elimination of violence towards children at home, dialogue with parents and teachers could influence online risk reduction such as cyberbullying [7].

In conclusion, the existence of a situation of risk for the children of Peruvian schools is revealed, it is necessary to establish individual, family and school preventive measures that can cope with it in this era of modernity and interconnectivity.

Notes

From the editor
The authors originally submitted this article in Spanish and subsequently translated it into English. The Journal has not copyedited this version. 

Declaration of conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest related to the subject matter of this article.

Financing
The authors state that there were no external sources of funding.

Table 1. Factors associated with the prevalence of Cyberbullying in Peruvian schoolchildren aged 9 to 11 years, 2015.
Licencia Creative Commons Esta obra de Medwave está bajo una licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 3.0 Unported. Esta licencia permite el uso, distribución y reproducción del artículo en cualquier medio, siempre y cuando se otorgue el crédito correspondiente al autor del artículo y al medio en que se publica, en este caso, Medwave.

 

Autores: Juan C. Ruiz-Maza[1,2,3], Jazmin M. Sanchez-Salvatierra[1,2,4], Carlos M. Moreno-Arteaga[1,2,3]

Filiación:
[1] Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
[2] Sociedad Científica de San Fernando, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
[3] Federación Latinoamericana de Sociedades Científicas de Estudiantes de Medicina (FELSOCEM)
[4] Standing Committee on Sexual and Reproductive Health including HIV/AIDS, International Federation of Medical Students Associations, Perú

E-mail: juancarlo.ruizmaza@gmail.com

Correspondencia a:
[1] Jirón Cailloma 437
departamento 402
Cercado de Lima
Lima
Perú

Citación: Ruiz-Maza JC, Sanchez-Salvatierra JM, Moreno-Arteaga CM. Cyberbullying in Peruvian schoolchildren and associated factors: analysis of a national survey. Medwave 2017 Ago;17(7):e7015 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2017.07.7015

Fecha de envío: 10/6/2017

Fecha de aceptación: 21/7/2017

Fecha de publicación: 7/8/2017

Origen: no solicitado

Tipo de revisión: con revisión por dos pares revisores externos, a doble ciego

Ficha PubMed

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  1. Aboujaoude E, Savage MW, Starcevic V, Salame WO. Cyberbullying: Review of an Old Problem Gone Viral. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Jul;57(1):10-8. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  2. Alim S. Cyberbullying in the world of teenagers and social media: A literature review. Int J Cyber Behav Psychol Learn. 2016;6(2):68-95. | Link |
  3. Smith PK, Mahdavi J, Carvalho M, Fisher S, Russell S, Tippett N. Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;49(4):376-85. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  4. Amemiya I, Oliveros M, Condorimay Y, Oliveros R, Barrientos A, Rivas BE, et al. Ciberbullying en colegios privados y estatales de primaria en dos distritos de Lima Metropolitana. An la Fac Med. 2013;74(2):91-6. | Link |
  5. García L, Orellana O, Pomalaya R EA. Cyberbullying en escolares de Educación Secundaria de Lima Metropolitana. Rev IIPSI Fac Psicol Univ Nac Mayor San Marcos. 2010;13(2):83-99. | Link |
  6. Bjereld Y, Daneback K, Petzold M. Do bullied children have poor relationships with their parents and teachers? A cross-sectional study of Swedish children. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2017;73:347-51. | Link |
  7. Perren S, Corcoran L, Cowie H, Dehue F, Garcia D, Mc Guckin C, et al. Tackling cyberbullying: Review of empirical evidence regarding successful responses by students, parents, and schools. Int J Conf Violence. 2012;6(2):283-93. | Link |
Aboujaoude E, Savage MW, Starcevic V, Salame WO. Cyberbullying: Review of an Old Problem Gone Viral. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Jul;57(1):10-8. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Alim S. Cyberbullying in the world of teenagers and social media: A literature review. Int J Cyber Behav Psychol Learn. 2016;6(2):68-95. | Link |

Smith PK, Mahdavi J, Carvalho M, Fisher S, Russell S, Tippett N. Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;49(4):376-85. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Amemiya I, Oliveros M, Condorimay Y, Oliveros R, Barrientos A, Rivas BE, et al. Ciberbullying en colegios privados y estatales de primaria en dos distritos de Lima Metropolitana. An la Fac Med. 2013;74(2):91-6. | Link |

García L, Orellana O, Pomalaya R EA. Cyberbullying en escolares de Educación Secundaria de Lima Metropolitana. Rev IIPSI Fac Psicol Univ Nac Mayor San Marcos. 2010;13(2):83-99. | Link |

Bjereld Y, Daneback K, Petzold M. Do bullied children have poor relationships with their parents and teachers? A cross-sectional study of Swedish children. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2017;73:347-51. | Link |

Perren S, Corcoran L, Cowie H, Dehue F, Garcia D, Mc Guckin C, et al. Tackling cyberbullying: Review of empirical evidence regarding successful responses by students, parents, and schools. Int J Conf Violence. 2012;6(2):283-93. | Link |