Problemas de salud pública
Medwave 2021;21(04):e8180 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2021.04.8180

Condiciones pre-existente en Latino América y factores asociados con resultados adversos en COVID-19: Una revisión

Pre-existing conditions in Latin America and factors associated with adverse outcomes of COVID-19: A review

Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Omar Andrade-Mayorga, Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Gladys Morales Illanes, Manuel Ortiz, Ingrid Schiferlli, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Álvaro Soto, Jorge Sapunar

Resumen

La pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), producida por el virus SARS-CoV-2, se ha diseminado rápidamente a través del mundo. Los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe han sido afectados duramente por la pandemia principalmente debido a falta de preparación de sus sistemas de salud y debido al fragmentado sistema de seguridad social. Además, en la región, el estado de salud de la población muestra peores indicadores de salud comparado con los países de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico. Evidencia reciente sugiere que la progresión y severidad de la COVID-19 están asociadas con el estado de salud basal del individuo, y algunos estudios han mostrado que la letalidad está altamente estratificada entre diferentes poblaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es describir los factores asociados con peor evolución de la COVID-19 en el contexto de los determinantes sociales de la salud en los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe. En esta revisión, se indica que los factores biológicos y genéticos interactúan de una manera sofisticada con los determinantes sociales de la salud, impactando la rápida diseminación de la COVID-19 en los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Factores del comportamiento, como la inactividad física, fumar, y una dieta poco saludable, están relacionadas con una inflamación sistémica crónica. Además, la contaminación ambiental puede prolonger la inflamación y la hiperactivación del sistema inmune. Las partículas contaminantes del aire pueden facilitar la dispersión del virus. Finalmente, el síndrome de fragilidad y las comorbilidades están asociadas con severidad de la COVID-19, aumentando la vulnerabilidad ante factores estresantes y provocando síntomas más graves de la enfermedad COVID-19, aumentando el riesgo de mortalidad. Todos los factores mencionados, contribuyen a aumentar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Destacamos la relevancia de considerar los determinantes sociales de la salud en los países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe, no sólo para controlar el riesgo de contagio, sino también la progresión y severidad de la enfermedad. Los determinantes sociales pueden guiar el diseño y la implementación de intervenciones para promover los estilos de vida saludable, que puede contribuir a reducir la diseminación de la enfermedad, su severidad y letalidad.


 

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