Topics and controversies in biostatistics

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Temporal sequence in observational studies to establish causality

Manejo de la temporalidad en estudios observacionales para establecer relaciones causales


The article includes a brief summary on the scope of the notions of causality and risk and considers some operational difficulties that arise when dealing with problems associated with them. It underscores the vital importance of timing and its link with the most commonly used observational research designs that address causal relationships. The article describes in detail the need to record the order in which the relevant events occur and how to consider this in the analysis. A detailed example of errors that are usually incurred in and their effect is provided.