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Protocols
Medwave 2020;20(5):e7941 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2020.05.7941
Diagnostic accuracy of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review protocol
Meisser Madera, Juan Víctor Ariel Franco, Ivan Solà, Xavier Bonfill, Ingrid Arévalo-Rodriguiez
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Key Words: mouth neoplasms, biomarkers, saliva, diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity

Abstract

Introduction
Oral cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 50% because diagnosis is commonly performed at an advanced stage of the disease, so new diagnostic tools are needed. Nowadays, there is a vast number of publications suggesting the use of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders diagnosis, but their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. Thus, the goal of this systematic review is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders.

Methods
This protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). We will include primary studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders. Studies must report data about sensitivity and specificity; gold standard must be the histopathology diagnosis. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and gray literature. Two authors will independently select the studies and extract the data. The methodology quality of studies will be determined using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2).

Expected results and conclusion
Our findings will provide information about the diagnostic accuracy of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders.


 

Only Spanish version is available.

Licencia Creative Commons Esta obra de Medwave está bajo una licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 3.0 Unported. Esta licencia permite el uso, distribución y reproducción del artículo en cualquier medio, siempre y cuando se otorgue el crédito correspondiente al autor del artículo y al medio en que se publica, en este caso, Medwave.

 

Introducción
El cáncer oral tiene una tasa de supervivencia a los cinco años de 50%, debido a que frecuentemente su diagnóstico es realizado en estadios avanzados. Por lo tanto, son necesarias nuevas ayudas diagnósticas. Actualmente, existe un número significativo de publicaciones científicas sugiriendo el uso de biomarcadores salivales para el diagnóstico de cáncer oral. Sin embargo, son desconocidas las propiedades diagnósticas de estos biomarcadores. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es evaluar la evidencia sobre la precisión diagnóstica de biomarcadores salivales usados en la identificación de cáncer oral y desórdenes potencialmente malignos.

Métodos
Este protocolo es reportado en concordancia con el Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). Se incluirán estudios evaluando la precisión diagnóstica de biomarcadores salivales para cáncer oral y desórdenes potencialmente malignos. Estos deberán reportar sensibilidad y especificidad, y utilizar como estándar de referencia un diagnóstico histopatológico. Se realizará una búsqueda en MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library y literatura gris. Dos autores independientemente seleccionarán los estudios y extraerán los datos. La calidad metodológica de los estudios será determinada usando The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2).

Resultados esperados y conclusión
Los hallazgos de esta revisión sistemática proporcionarán información acerca de la precisión diagnóstica de los biomarcadores salivales para diagnóstico de cáncer oral y desórdenes potencialmente malignos.

Authors: Meisser Madera[1,2], Juan Víctor Ariel Franco[3], Ivan Solà[2,4], Xavier Bonfill[2,4], Ingrid Arévalo-Rodriguiez[5]

Affiliation:
[1] Departamento de Investigaciones, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
[2] Centro Cochrane Iberoamericano, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Sant Pau, Barcelona, España
[3] Cochrane Argentina, Instituto Universitario Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina
[4] Servicio de Salud Pública y Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, España
[5] Unidad de Bioestadística Clínica, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

E-mail: mmaderaa@unicartagena.edu.co

Author address:
[1] Zaragocilla Cra. 50 No. 29 - 11
Cartagena, Colombia
Código postal: 130014

Citation: Madera M, Franco JVA, Solà I, Bonfill X, Arévalo-Rodriguiez I. Diagnostic accuracy of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review protocol . Medwave 2020;20(5):e7941 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2020.05.7941

Submission date: 18/2/2020

Acceptance date: 1/6/2020

Publication date: 24/6/2020

Origin: Not commissioned

Type of review: Externally peer-reviewed by three reviewers, double-blind

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  1. Brinkmann O, Wong DT. Salivary transcriptome biomarkers in oral squamous cell cancer detection. Adv Clin Chem. 2011;55:21-34. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  2. Madera M. Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. Av Odontoestomatol 2013;29:293-302. | Link |
  3. Chan KK, Glenny AM, Weldon JC, Furness S, Worthington HV, Wakeford H. Interventions for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 1;(12):CD010341. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  4. Wong T, Wiesenfeld D. Oral Cancer. Aust Dent J. 2018 Mar;63 Suppl 1:S91-S99. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  5. Freedman ND, Abnet CC, Leitzmann MF, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A. Prospective investigation of the cigarette smoking-head and neck cancer association by sex.Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1593-601. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  6. Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009 Apr-May;45(4-5):309-16. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  7. Conway DI, Petticrew M, Marlborough H, Berthiller J, Hashibe M, Macpherson LM. Socioeconomic inequalities and oral cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2811-9. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  8. Madera Anaya M, Franco JVA, Ballesteros M, Solà I, Urrútia Cuchí G, Bonfill Cosp X. Evidence mapping and quality assessment of systematic reviews on therapeutic interventions for oral cancer. Cancer Manag Res. 2018 Dec 24;11:117-130. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  9. Yamada SI, Kurita H, Tomioka T, Ohta R, Yoshimura N, Nishimaki F, et al. Healthy life expectancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients aged 75years and older. Oral Oncol. 2017 Jan;64:22-26. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  10. Wang X, Kaczor-Urbanowicz KE, Wong DT. Salivary biomarkers in cancer detection. Med Oncol. 2017 Jan;34(1):7. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  11. Khurshid Z, Zafar MS, Khan RS, Najeeb S, Slowey PD, Rehman IU. Role of Salivary Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Detection. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;86:23-70. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  12. Feng Y, Li Q, Chen J, Yi P, Xu X, Fan Y, et al. Salivary protease spectrum biomarkers of oral cancer. Int J Oral Sci. 2019 Jan 3;11(1):7. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  13. Rapado-González Ó, López-López R, López-Cedrún JL, Triana-Martínez G, Muinelo-Romay L, Suárez-Cunqueiro MM. Cell-Free microRNAs as Potential Oral Cancer Biomarkers:From Diagnosis to Therapy. Cells. 2019 Dec 17;8(12):1653. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  14. Nagler R, Bahar G, Shpitzer T, Feinmesser R. Concomitant analysis of salivary tumor markers--a new diagnostic tool for oral cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):3979-84. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  15. Kaur J, Jacobs R, Huang Y, Salvo N, Politis C. Salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and pre-cancer screening: a review. Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Mar;22(2):633-640. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  16. Hema Shree K, Ramani P, Sherlin H, Sukumaran G, Jeyaraj G, Don KR, et al. Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a Systematic Review with Meta Analysis. Pathol Oncol Res. 2019 Apr;25(2):447-453. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  17. Chattopadhyay I, Panda M. Recent trends of saliva omics biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. J Oral Biosci. 2019 Jun;61(2):84-94. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  18. Cristaldi M, Mauceri R, Di Fede O, Giuliana G, Campisi G, Panzarella V. Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis and Follow-Up: Current Status and Perspectives. Front Physiol. 2019 Dec 10;10:1476. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  19. Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ. 2015 Jan 2;350:g7647. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  20. WHO. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data. 2013. [On line] | Link |
  21. Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan-a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 5;5(1):210. | CrossRef | PubMed |
  22. Whiting PF, Rutjes AW, Westwood ME, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Oct 18;155(8):529-36. | CrossRef | PubMed |
Brinkmann O, Wong DT. Salivary transcriptome biomarkers in oral squamous cell cancer detection. Adv Clin Chem. 2011;55:21-34. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Madera M. Biomarcadores de cáncer oral en saliva. Av Odontoestomatol 2013;29:293-302. | Link |

Chan KK, Glenny AM, Weldon JC, Furness S, Worthington HV, Wakeford H. Interventions for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 1;(12):CD010341. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Wong T, Wiesenfeld D. Oral Cancer. Aust Dent J. 2018 Mar;63 Suppl 1:S91-S99. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Freedman ND, Abnet CC, Leitzmann MF, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A. Prospective investigation of the cigarette smoking-head and neck cancer association by sex.Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1593-601. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009 Apr-May;45(4-5):309-16. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Conway DI, Petticrew M, Marlborough H, Berthiller J, Hashibe M, Macpherson LM. Socioeconomic inequalities and oral cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2811-9. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Madera Anaya M, Franco JVA, Ballesteros M, Solà I, Urrútia Cuchí G, Bonfill Cosp X. Evidence mapping and quality assessment of systematic reviews on therapeutic interventions for oral cancer. Cancer Manag Res. 2018 Dec 24;11:117-130. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Yamada SI, Kurita H, Tomioka T, Ohta R, Yoshimura N, Nishimaki F, et al. Healthy life expectancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients aged 75years and older. Oral Oncol. 2017 Jan;64:22-26. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Wang X, Kaczor-Urbanowicz KE, Wong DT. Salivary biomarkers in cancer detection. Med Oncol. 2017 Jan;34(1):7. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Khurshid Z, Zafar MS, Khan RS, Najeeb S, Slowey PD, Rehman IU. Role of Salivary Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Detection. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;86:23-70. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Feng Y, Li Q, Chen J, Yi P, Xu X, Fan Y, et al. Salivary protease spectrum biomarkers of oral cancer. Int J Oral Sci. 2019 Jan 3;11(1):7. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Rapado-González Ó, López-López R, López-Cedrún JL, Triana-Martínez G, Muinelo-Romay L, Suárez-Cunqueiro MM. Cell-Free microRNAs as Potential Oral Cancer Biomarkers:From Diagnosis to Therapy. Cells. 2019 Dec 17;8(12):1653. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Nagler R, Bahar G, Shpitzer T, Feinmesser R. Concomitant analysis of salivary tumor markers--a new diagnostic tool for oral cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):3979-84. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Kaur J, Jacobs R, Huang Y, Salvo N, Politis C. Salivary biomarkers for oral cancer and pre-cancer screening: a review. Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Mar;22(2):633-640. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Hema Shree K, Ramani P, Sherlin H, Sukumaran G, Jeyaraj G, Don KR, et al. Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a Systematic Review with Meta Analysis. Pathol Oncol Res. 2019 Apr;25(2):447-453. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Chattopadhyay I, Panda M. Recent trends of saliva omics biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. J Oral Biosci. 2019 Jun;61(2):84-94. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Cristaldi M, Mauceri R, Di Fede O, Giuliana G, Campisi G, Panzarella V. Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis and Follow-Up: Current Status and Perspectives. Front Physiol. 2019 Dec 10;10:1476. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ. 2015 Jan 2;350:g7647. | CrossRef | PubMed |

WHO. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data. 2013. [On line] | Link |

Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan-a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 5;5(1):210. | CrossRef | PubMed |

Whiting PF, Rutjes AW, Westwood ME, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Oct 18;155(8):529-36. | CrossRef | PubMed |