VIII Congreso Internacional de Investigación REDU

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Análisis del comportamiento tensión-deformación de aceros estructurales para el sector de la musculación mediante ensayos físicos y métodos de elementos finitos

Analysis of the stress-strain behavior of structural steels for the bodybuilding sector through physical tests and finite element methods

Analysis of the stress-strain behavior of structural steels for the bodybuilding sector

Palabras clave
Finite element method, strees-strain behavior, bodybuilding sector, physical tests


In recent years, the bus body industry in Ecuador has developed through the expansion and execution of new projects, creating prototypes, testing structural analysis, as well as metallographic and climatic studies, heat treatments, resistance of materials and impressions of 3D type of some parts. However, studies that allow the development of more resistant and reliable structures are crucial for this growth to be sustained.


Therefore, the present study has the purpose of comparing the physical tests with the virtual ones that are elaborated by the finite element method, where the Tensile-Deformational behavior of structural steels in square tubes of 50x50x3 is determined, executing tests where they are determined properties such as malleability, toughness, hardness, and elasticity. Specifically, the investigation will be strictly focused on the sections of the bus with the highest critical loads. These results will be analytically validated, corroborating the results presented in the tests, with defined and delimited loads similar to the real ones. Hence, this study allows determining the most resistant and reliable structures for buses based on two different methodologies to reduce the effect of collisions.


The present study focuses on a qualitative-quantitative approach paradigm analyzing the behavior of a material and detailing the characteristics, based on data obtained validated by originated mathematical models. Additionally, a comparative study was carried out between the Finite Element Method and material physical tests following the ASTM and INEN regulations. Specifically, the analysis of shear, bending and displacement forces in Y was determined with an originating safety factor equal to or greater than that recommended for Ductile Steel described in Robert Mott. For this purpose, the Finite Element Method will be used, using SolidWorks software.

Principales Resultados

The existing material was characterized in tensile tests with a load of 7834.124 N, physically the results of efforts of 407.127 MPa, as well as a displacement of 3 mm, differing from the virtual type given by the MEF with errors of 0.2628% and 3.0 %. On the other hand, the bending tests with 1276.61 N in the physical tests originate stress of 9.67 MPa and a displacement of 2.58 mm, differing from the MEF with 1.83% and 2.32%. The results of the tensile tests were endorsed by means of analytical analysis where they differed in an error in Effort 1.58%, displacement 2.40%; whereas, in the bending tests, differences in the stress of 1.847% and displacement of 7% are originated. 


Through the results obtained, it can be observed that the materials comply with the requested efforts, endorsing their results in a physical, virtual and analytical way.
The best results were obtained with Tube 50x50x3, originating Tension of 1500000 MPa, displacement of 2,513 mm, unit deformation of 4,991, and the FDS of 2.6.
Based on commonly used materials such as AISI 1015, Galvanized Steel, Unalloyed Carbon Steel, and AISI 1045 Steel, it is determined that the galvanized type is the best option because it has a recommended FDS to that of Robert Mott, it does not generate too many displacements, as well as strains.